History

The Date of human civilization in this district reaches 4000 years ago. The existence of prehistoric culture in Kanniyakumari District is evident from the discovery of Neolithic Celt which may roughly be dated to 1500 to 1000 B.C.

A handmade coarse earthen jar and other relics were found near Thoothur Village in Kanniyakumari District. The shape, fabric and the decorations indicate that they are probably of the megalithic or early historic period.

From the legends and traditions existing in these regions, it has to be believed, beyond doubt, that a great city flourished in these regions during the megalithic or early historic period and that it might have been similar to the one which existed in Mohanjadaro and Harappa. Since, the relics of this period remained in the sea bed, it has to be believed that this civilization was wiped out due to sea erosion.

The Phoenicians were the first among the foreigners to mention about the present Kanniyakumari District area. In the account of Eratosthenes who visited India in about 276 B.C. Kanniyakumari is mentioned. In this Komari is mentioned as a harbor and the land upto komari is said to be the part of Pandian Kingdom. A concise chronology of the district is presented.

1st Century A.D.

Nanjil Nadu and the Ayi Dynasty during the period of Ptolemy Nanjil Nadu as was seen remained as buffer between the Cheras and the Pandyas.

3rd  Century A.D.

Nanjil Porunan ruled over a part of Nanjil Nadu – from the songs in the praise of Nanjil Porunan by the Sangam Poets – Marudan Ilanaganar, Avvaiyar, Oruchirai Periyanar and Karuvur Kadapillai.

4th Century A.D.

Pandiyan Dynasty rules Nanjil Nadu – upto 9th century A.D.

  1. Kadungon – AD 560-590
  2. Maravaram Avani Sulamani – AD 590-620
  3. Sendan – AD 620-650
  4. Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman – AD 650-700
  5. Koccadaiyan – AD 700-730
  6. Maravarma Rajasimha – AD 730-765
  7. Jatila Parantaka Nedum Sadayan – AD 765-815
  8. Sri Mara Sri vallabha – AD 815-862
  9. Varaguna – II AD 862-885
  10. Paranthska Viranarayanan – AD 860-905
  11. Maravarman Rajasimha – II AD 905-920

10th Century A.D Raise of Chola dynasty

Nanjil Nadu mentioned as Uthama Chola Vala Nadu.Half of the Century – (1019 to 1070 A.D.) Nanjil Nadu was governed by Chola Pandya Viceroys

11th Century A.D Pandiyan Rules

12th Century A.D

Venad Kings Rules – upto 15th Century A.D.

1532 – 1558 A.D. under Vijayanagar Empire

16th Century A.D Rule of Nayak of Madurai

17 th Century A.D A.D.1729-1758 The modern history of Kanniyakumari district begins with a rule of Bala Marthanda Varma

Successors of Bala Marthanda Varma

  1. Rama Varma Karthigai Thirunal 1758-1798
  2. Bala Rama Varma – 1798-1810
  3. Rani Gowri Lakshmi Bai – 1811-1815
  4. Rani Gowri Parvathi Bai – 1815-1829
  5. Rama Varma Swati Thirunal – 1829-1847
  6. Marthanda Varma Uttaram Thirunal 1847-1860
  7. Rama Varma Ayilam Thirunal – 1860-1880
  8. Rama Varma Visakam Thirunal – 1880-1885
  9. Sri Mulam Thirunal 1885-1924
  10. Regent Sethu Lakshmi Bai – 1924-1932
  11. Rama Varma Sri Chithirai Thirunal – 1932 upto the end of the monarchy 1st Se p1949

The important feature of the foreign policy of these rulers was that they maintained cordial relationship with the British.
Till 1956 the Kanniyakumari district was a part of the erstwhile Travancore. The period between 1945 and 1956 bears much significance as far as the modern history of Kanniyakumari District is concerned.
1945  Travancore State Congress passed a resolution in favour of the formation of a United Kerala State by merging the states of Travancore. The Tamil Language which was recognized as one of the State official languages of the Travancore was derecognized and Malayalam remained as the only official language in the State. This was felt as an insult to Tamils
1946  All Travancore Tamil Congress emerged on the 30th June 1946. Marshal Nesamony had led the movement for the merger of the present kanniyakumari district with Tamil Nadu successfully.
1947  Travancore State became a part of Indian Union
1948  Travancore Tamilnadu congress pressed their demands for the merger of the area with the then Madras State and Sardhar Vallabhai Patel Deputy Prime Minister of Indian Union assured the Tamils of Travancore the demand would be considered while the scheme for the reorganization of the states on the linguistic basis was taken up.
1949 Demonstration against the union of the two states Travancore and Cochin but inspite of severe opposition the union of Travancore and Cochin States was affected on the Ist of June 1949.
1951  General Election – Coalition with state congress in the legislature and in 1952 the Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress withdrew its support to the state congress due to a rift and subsequently the Ministry Fell
1954  Fresh Election – the Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress won all the 12 seats in the Tamil Speaking area improving its strength. In the course of time the Travancore Tamil nadu Congress became divided into two one under the leadership of A. Nesamoni and the other under Thiru.P.Thanulinga Nadar and once again on 29th March 1954 the parties were united and Tr.P.Ramasamy Pillai became leader of the party. Agitations, demonstrations Harthals public meeting and processions results police opening fire resulting in the loss of many precious lives. The situation in Kanniyakumari District became more turbulent and the ministry fell and hence presidents rule was promulgated in Travancore – Cochin State.
1955  A.Nesamoni – president of the Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress since 1955.

1956  State Reorganization Commission was constituted

The Commission decide to transfer to the Madras State the five Southern Taluks of Travancore viz Thovalai, Agastheeswaram, Kalkulam, Vilavancode and Shencottah.

1956 November Ist the four Taluks of Thovalai, Agastheeswaram, Kalkulam, Vilavancode were grouped together to form the new district, “Kanniyakumari District” of Tamil Nadu emerged with Nagercoil as its head quarters

1966-1976 New Revenue Survey under taken: Settlement department established
1976 Village Bifurcations
2012  Village Bifurcations